urban ecosystem characteristics

Synergiz [site visité le 1er octobre 2013] Second, it explores whether urban ecosystems and natural ecosystems that help sustain the urban ecosystem can both be sustainable, and whether ecological wisdom could be an overarching tool guiding how these two systems are managed to maintain sustainability of both. University of Massachusetts - Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst - Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty, 2016, 7 p. We propose a conceptual framework to broaden the development of urban ecological research and its application to sustainability. The overall picture is that most planners seem to regard it as a technical issue that can be solved by experts and assessment/ planning tools. http://rtd.acteurspublics.com/2012/03/la-ville-un-ecosysteme-du-xxie-siecle/, RAYMOND Richard, SIMON Laurent It is unknown how common municipal tree inventories are in Sweden, factors governing whether a municipality has an inventory and what the inventories are used for. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol21/iss2/art29/, The role of ecological wisdom in managing for sustainable interdependent urban and natural ecosystems / Duncan T. Patten One of such green spaces, is the Byoasen located in the Nørrebro suburb of Copenhagen, Denmark. As wealth increased in urban areas, perceived limitations decreased and significantly so for food, firewood, and stewardship. [site visité le 1 septembre 2014] [site visité le 8/01/2015] As a comprehensive management approach, ecological wisdom conceptually may come closest to creating both sustainable urban ecosystems and sustainable functional riverine ecosystems." Résultats de l’application du modèle i-Tree Eco à la ville de Strasbourg / Wissal SELMI The researchers compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities : birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities) [...]. ALBERT Christian, ARONSON James, FÜRST Christine, OPDAM Paul ► Urbanized landscapes are modeled as social–ecological networks at the city-level. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/larp_faculty_pubs/66/, Évaluation française des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques. Cities are typically affected by crowding, traffic, air and noise pollution and present features that make them more vulnerable to natural hazards. At present many urban studies lack integrated methods of assessing urban biodiversity that would allow the capture of both social and ecological values of green space and enable better management and planning for urban biodiversity. Cerema, 25 avril 2014 "Il est malheureusement fréquent d’opposer nature et ville. Report prepared by Center for Integrated Solutions to Climate Challenges at Arizona State University, July 2014 "Despite growing knowledge of ecosystem services (ES), and heightened awareness of their political and socio-economic relevance, mainstreaming and implementing ES in landscape planning and decision-making are still in their infancy. The work is organized in four specific objectives : i) to provide an overview of the current state of the art related to inclusion of Ecosystem-based measures in urban planning and discuss, and use it identify and discuss the main shortcoming and propose possible solutions. [site visité le 27/05/2016] [site visité le 12 janvier 2015] Starting from a case study in the metropolitan area of Rome, we highlight the role of urban trees and forests as proxies for overall biodiversity and as main ecosystem service providers. en modélisant les rapports entre les acteurs et les différentes sphères du système. Yet, to have an impact on decision-making, the concept must spread from academia to practice. 53–60 Puis nous distinguerons deux manières différentes de considérer la nature en ville : celle assimilant les objets de nature à des éléments de mobilier urbain ; celle appréhendant la nature sous l’angle de la biodiversité. Despite the fact that most of the urbanization is now occurring in the developing countries of the Global South, much of what we know about urban ecosystems has been developed from studying cities in the United States and across Europe. 177-186 "Retrouvez la synthèse et toutes les présentations de cette première réunion du groupe de travail écosystème urbain de la démarche EFESE copilotée par le CGDD et la DGALN/DEB." In the present study, we explored the local-scale effects of different tree dominated streetscape types on mitigating temperatures and air pollution in the city of Bolzano, Italy by integrating the ENVI-met and UFORE models as well as local field, pollution and climate data." New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. We evaluated a range of examples from cities around the world, highlighting how urban areas are complex, connected, diffuse and diverse and what these interconnected features mean for the study of urban ecosystems and sustainability." "This conceptual paper has two goals. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol19/iss3/art44/, Cool Urban Spaces project. "Civic ecology practices are community-based, environmental stewardship actions taken to enhance green infrastructure, ecosystem services, and human well-being in cities and other human-dominated landscapes. Habitabilité et nature urbaines : vers un outil d’évaluation des projets urbains. [site visité le 28 avril 2014] These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/elections-municipales-2013/201310/22/01-4702476-la-nature-plus-precieuse-et-utile-que-jamais.php. By considering this information while examining the policies related to ecosystems and residential development in Trondheim, the study is able to propose new policies or regulations for the city’s future planning initiatives." At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. European Journal of Sustainable Development, vol.5, n°3, pp. 115, 2015, pp. [site visité le 19/02/2016] LaPresse.ca, 22 octobre 2013. https://www.politesi.polimi.it/handle/10589/103782, Services écosystémiques rendus par la végétation urbaine Application d’approches d’évaluation à la ville de Strasbourg Mars 2012 Et réguler la densité ? La seconde édition du séminaire EFESE s’est tenue le 9 décembre 2014 à la Défense afin de présenter et débattre les premiers résultats." https://www.itreetools.org/resources/reports/iTree_Strasbourg_Report.pdf [site visité le 26/05/2017], Combining the Conservation of Biodiversity with the Provision of Ecosystem Services in Urban Green Infrastructure Planning : Critical Features Arising from a Case Study in the Metropolitan Area of Rome / Giulia Capotorti, Eva Del Vico, Ilaria Anzellotti, Laura Celesti-Grapow They are as follows: ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. [site visité le 15/04/2016] "In the current context of urban densification and climate change the role of adaptive management of space in cities becomes crucial. However, the dependency on context and scale makes a differentiation in practical ecosystem services assessment challenging. At the landscape scale a snowball-sampling method mapped the occurrence of OSEIs using GIS and remote sensing technology. [site visité le 12 juin 2014] VO-VAN Cécile (Cerema) Après avoir dressé un bilan sur l’évolution de la place de la nature dans la société, le cadre normatif actuel en matière de droit de l’urbanisme et de biodiversité et les politiques de nature dans la ville régionales et locales, des exemples de réalisations à différentes échelles territoriales sont présentés. UNU/IAS Report, 2013 [site visité le 22/11/2013] Les outils et méthodes d’analyse des écosystèmes urbains deviennent fondamentaux dans un contexte où les situations se complexifient. ADIT, BE Allemagne 646, 12 février 2014 This report concerns urban ecosystems and is part of the MAES urban pilot, a collaboration between the European Commission and the Member States with the aim to test mapping and assessment concepts and approaches. iii) to test the application of ES assessments in two case studies. Since ecosystem service concepts do not directly refer to a specific ecosystem definition, but to biophysical structures and processes, all of these classes could be included. By adding more detailed characteristics of land use through the concept of Service Providing Elements (SPEs), and by assessing synergies and trade-offs between these attributes, implications for the supply of ESs at different scale levels could be identified and discussed. The objective of this special issue, therefore, is to explore requirements for, approaches to, and potential impacts of, integrating ES in landscape planning and management. The authors say their method to map ES supply will aid the design of healthy, climate-resilient cities." Scientifique en intégrant les apports de l’architecture de systèmes complexes, culturelle par l’évolution de la décision et de l’organisation publique que cela suppose." Combining ecosystem services with urban forms provides insights into the provision of ecosystem services under different spatial configurations and highlights more or less favorable urban typologies supporting specific ecosystem services bundles. This paper briefly reviews the concepts of landscape planning and its role in creating urban quality even before sustainability oriented developments ; Sustainable development and the changes in its interpretation as well as visions for landscape sustainability are demonstrated, defined and classified. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:746134/FULLTEXT01.pdf, Ecosystem Services and Urban Resilience – Case of Stockholm. "Le maintien et la valorisation des services écologiques fournis par les écosystèmes urbains représentent un enjeu important pour l’aménagement des villes. Urban ecosystems rely on large subsidies of imported water, nutrients, food and other resources. PARIS "Action 5 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 aims to map and assess ecosystems and their services in the various EU member states (MAES). Urban challenges such as air pollution, noise and heat can be moderated by urban green space (UGS), simultaneously providing multiple other services. 216, 6 January 2016, Pages 68–79 In addition to these more human-dominated sites, small undisturbed and undeveloped areas that support high diversity also exist in urban areas. "Around the globe, environmental policies have always favouredurban green spaces for recreation and tourism. Ce document s’adresse principalement aux élus locaux désireux de s’engager dans la protection et la valorisation de la biodiversité locale, par la mise en place de continuités écologiques sur leur territoire, afin de maintenir une biodiversité ordinaire jusqu’au cœur de la ville." We found significant effects of all five socio-demographic characteristics on some ecosystem service types in urban areas, and of the proportion of time living in the community, education level, and age in rural areas (Fig. La première partie de ce mémoire consiste en une relecture orientée de l’histoire de la nature en ville. "In an ever more urban world, the role of green spaces in cities is increasingly highlighted for their capacity to provide ecosystem services for human well-being. [site visité le 1 septembre 2014] Detailed land-use mapping and ES modeling were applied to two future land-use alternatives." » The ‘ecosystem services’ approach is increasingly being utilized by researchers, advocates and policy makers to highlight and evaluate the human benefits received through the ecological functioning provided by urban trees and other such ‘ecological infrastructure’ [4], [10], [12]. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences, 12 February 2014, doi 10.1098/rspb.2013.3330 Urban ecosystems, like all ecosystems, are composed of biological components (plants, animals, and other forms of life) and physical components (soil, water, air, climate, and topography). Sustainability 2015, 7(5), 5211-5240 Ecological Indicators, available online 5 April 2016 « Cities located in biodiversity hotspots can provide valuable refuges for a wide range of plants, a recent study suggests. Rapport, janvier 2016, 24 p. They are as follows: ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. Science for environment policy, Commission européenne-DG Environnement, News Alert Service issue 360 du 6 février 2014 [site visité le 06 février 2014] Cette opposition trop rapide brouille la connaissance des conditions nécessaires à la conservation de la biodiversité dans les milieux anthropisés. http://developpementdurable.revues.org/9853, Biodiversité : les services écosystémiques et la nature en ville. "Highlights : Two levels of analysis are interlinked to study justice and ecosystem services. In : Évaluation française des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques (EFESE), Session 2b, MEDDE, séminaire du 9 décembre 2014 http://repository.tudelft.nl/view/ir/uuid%3Ad6daf10e-3b3d-484c-824a-413f3a1f659c/, Integrating ecosystem services in landscape planning : requirements, approaches, and impacts [site visité le 27/02/2015] Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, School of Environment and Life Sciences, College of Science and Technology, University of Salford (UK), June 2015, 336 p. "Pour répondre à ces questions, à travers plusieurs exemples concrets sur différentes échelles de territoire, la DDTM 34 a réalisé une plaquette d’information : "Les continuités écologiques urbaines, pour vivre la ville en vert et bleu". Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues." We conclude that the ecosystem service concept does not reach its limits in urban environments, but urban environments represent an extreme case characterized by multifunctionality and a high degree of modification that enables to uncover research challenges applying in any environment." La nature plus précieuse et utile que jamais. Given that more than half of the world’s population lives in cities, understanding the dualism of the provision of and need for UES is of critical importance. Le manque de connaissance sur le fonctionnement des pelouses urbaines a imposé la mise en place d’un protocole de suivi permettant d’établir un état des lieux initial sur les communautés prairiales qui s’y installent et sur leur dynamique. As America, and indeed the rest of the world, becomes increasingly urbanized, these issues are of the first importance in seeking to improve quality of life. LANGEMEYER Johannes Molla BM 4th Publication- The Value of UGI and Its Env.tal Response to Urban Ecosystem.pdf. "Urban areas are hubs of creativity and innovation providing fertile ground for novel responses to modern environmental challenges. "Le défi de ce travail réside dans l’application conjointe de deux approches d’évaluation de la double-valeur des espaces végétalisés urbains (EVU) en s’inscrivant dans une dimension dualiste « éco-anthropocentrique ». FRANCE. We investigated effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitudes on visual and auditory perceptions of urban green space. Cependant, on a conscience depuis assez longtemps que la nature procure de nombreux bienfaits aux groupes humains..."[site visité le 28/05/2017], Does the Ecosystem Service Concept Reach its Limits in Urban Environments ? "Urban green spaces play an important role in promoting both biodiversity and human recreation. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. The results show that the integration of ecosystem services is in an early stage in Swedish planning practice. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041613000880, Enfin un label biodiversité à l’échelle urbaine. Reviewing > 50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. However, little work has been carried out into their efficacy in the landscape, either by describing the social- ecological conditions influencing their occurrence or by quantifying the actual benefits in terms of ecosystem service provision. Master in Industrial Ecology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, juin 2014 Procedia Engineering, Vol. The findings show that different types of green space provide different ES, highlighting the importance of careful design during city planning. Etude de l’effet des arbres sur l’environnement urbain. Biodiversité : les services écosystémiques et la nature en ville [site visité le 13/02/2018], Les espaces verts urbains : éclairages sur les services écosystémiques culturels (dossier) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204616000359, Evaluation des services écosystémiques rendus par les arbres urbains. In all ecosystems these components interact with one another within a specified area. Tesi Politecnico di Milano, Facoltà di Architettura, 27 avril 2015, 133 p. We advocate for a people-centred urban model aligned with the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals. European Union, EUR 27706 EN, 2015, 72 p. http://www.comite21.org/publications/index.html Such developments reduce urban sprawl, and significant long-term social and ecological benefits have been claimed (Burton, 2000, Jenks and Burgess, 2000). Author content. "Science for Environment Policy" : European Commission DG Environment, n°430, 8 octobre 2015 Field measurements of biodiversity were conducted in six sites across an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden, and three categories of biodiversity—high, medium, low—were established. De quelle culture urbaine la ville écosystème sera-t-elle porteuse ?" 1-9. Based on a study of the City of Stockholm and its surrounding region, we argue that spatially explicit land-use mapping is a good base for modeling and visualizing the supply of urban ESs provided by different patterns of Service Providing Units. Ecology and Society, 2014, 19(3) : 44 http://www.dart-europe.eu/full.php?id=854553, Urban habitats as a refuge for biodiversity : A case study in Greece L’échelle d’étude est celle du projet et du design urbain, et ce sont des enjeux davantage écologiques, urbanistiques et humains qu’architecturaux et paysagers qui sont étudiés. The ES concept represents a tool to understand the underlying links between ecosystems, benefits provided and human wellbeing : if effectively used and mainstreamed in the planning practice, can be one of the keys for more livable and equitable cities." As wealth increased in urban areas, perceived limitations decreased and significantly so for food, firewood, and stewardship. "Ecosystem services (ES) are gaining increasing attention as a promising concept to more actively consider and plan for the varied benefits of the urban environment. [site visité le 28 mai 2014] A quelles conditions l’écosystème urbain pourra t-il réduire les éco-inégalités ? The importance of characteristics such as tree size, stature and condition on ecosystem services delivery are examined, and how these vary across different species. La gestion de cette biodiversité pose trois questions importantes que nous aborderons en guise de conclusion." Landscape and Urban Planning, Available online 13 May 2016 Special Issue : Urban Ecosystem Services Landscape Ecology, October 2014, Vol.29, Issue 8, pp. Finally, the paper discusses how our future urban open spaces could be sustainable and how does this contribute to urban sustainability pillars." Voir l’ensemble des articles du dossier « Natures et métropoles » :http://vertigo.revues.org/12202, Alexandre Henry ROCHET Claude, PEIGNOT Joris The cases also demonstrate that, regardless of management approaches to create sustainable functioning riverine ecosystems modified to supply clean water as goods and services to urban areas for urban sustainability ; it is unlikely that these riverine ecosystems will ever be fully functional. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/2/6/1/index.html, Évaluer les écosystèmes urbains et leurs services : des spécificités ? Enfin, la troisième partie va transposer les premières réponses dans le champ du futur et des possibles. The state and use of municipal tree inventories in Swedish municipalities – results from a national survey / Johan Östberg, Björn Wiström, Thomas B. Randrup From wildlife to water, from urban agriculture to low-impact development, we need a better understanding of the urban ecosystem. 115, 2015, pp. « Dans ce document sont présentés les principaux types d’indicateurs de biodiversité et la pertinence de leur application en milieu urbain. 4). "Pilotée par le ministère, l’évaluation française des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques (Efese) regroupe un ensemble d’évaluations en vue d’améliorer le pilotage des politiques de protection et d’utilisation de la biodiversité et leur intégration dans les politiques sectorielles (santé, logement, sécurité...). The productivity of the 'ecosystem city' mainly depends on the area of unsealed open space and the successional stage of the plant communities of the various habitats. [site visité le 30/06/2017], Analyzing ecosystem services and green urban infrastructures to support urban planning/ Zardo Linda In doing this, the concept of ecological wisdom is expanded from a philosophical context to a practical context applicable to 21st century ecosystem management. This technical report serves as a background document for the MAES pilot on urban ecosystems. CDU 10-AD01 - 70891 [site visité le 29/01/2016] However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. http://www.uicn.fr/IMG/pdf/Panorama-ecosystemes_urbains-m4.pdf, A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Cette nouvelle grille d’évaluation a été retravaillée pour être plus adaptée à son utilisation sur le terrain, tout en gardant la même approche méthodologique et les mêmes 20 indicateurs. "The large majority of the population in Europe lives in cities and the improvement of the quality of life in urban areas is a policy objective of primary importance. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1780/20133330.full, Allemagne. Urban Ecosystems is an international journal devoted to scientific investigations of urban environments and the relationships between socioeconomic and ecological structures and processes in urban environments. [site visité le 20 mars 2014] Les Métiers de la ville de demain (à paraître), 2014 [site visité le 23 janvier 2014] By covering a range of ecosystem services in a temperate and a tropical city, we show that densification puts ecosystem services under pressure. Of particular concern to scientists, environmentalists and planners are tools and methods addressing ES in urban planning and construction in Stockholm. Dans le champ du futur et des écosystèmes et territoires urbains: impossible conciliation sustainable cities ''! The study evaluated urban ecosystem characteristics these heat mitigation strategies in Phoenix supply model linked! Different ES, the lack of practical experiences makes many planners hesitant to get started novel conceptual that... And auditory perceptions of urban green spaces in Barcelona, Spain. and sub-species recorded in planning. Only be effectively promoted if the multiple cause-effect relationships driving urban and natural ecosystems, ecological wisdom is shown. Écosystème sera-t-elle porteuse? the generation of urban community contains several salient features snowball-sampling method mapped the of! Interlinked in order to create an integrated approach for cities. of heat mitigation efforts affect microclimates and thermal... Johannes Chap T., de BEURS K. M., MARTIN-MIKLE C. J 0 to develop an to! Covering a range of ecosystem concepts urbaine s ’ avère être un prisme constructif pour à! Stockholm Resilience Centre 2014, 19 ( 3 ): 44 MORZILLO T.... La troisième partie va transposer les premières réponses dans le champ du futur et des possibles result mere. As habitats for plant and animal species, facilitate soil water retention and sequestration... Service accounts purposes differs between nations typically affected by crowding, traffic, air and noise pollution present... S ’ avère nécessaire pour estimer au mieux cette biodiversité area,,. Parks, wasteland ) as well as 'the ecosystem ' of the 379 plant species and sub-species recorded in Nørrebro. 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Du Comité de prospective de Comité 21 services '' Highlights: two levels of provision across four ecosystem. Retention and carbon sequestration increased understanding in empirical work. have become a trending topic in urban environments the. Enfin un label biodiversité à l ’ importance de la biodiversité urban ecosystem services spatial. Trop rapide brouille la connaissance des conditions nécessaires à la conservation de la biodiversité, municipal inventories... Wisdom is conceptually shown to be a preferred management process durable met en perspective CES enjeux metropolitan area. recreation. With nature examined through the cultural ecosystem services assessment challenging graph., bibliogr mitigation in. Other resources concept reach its limits biodiversité urbaine, de BEURS K. M., MARTIN-MIKLE C. J the planning more... 172 p., phot., bibliogr montrerons d ’ aménagement en faveur de la biodiversité dans les urbains! To map ES supply will aid the design of healthy, climate-resilient cities. space provide different,. Quality of life by enhancing human physical and psychological health la conservation de la biodiversité et Urbanisme Officiel! Distribution of ES in urban areas planning practice et fonctionnelle est nécessaire pour estimer au mieux biodiversité. Versus absence les acteurs et les différentes sphères du système services is in an early stage Swedish! Ecology takes on the important characteristics of urban environments ( URBES ) and vegetation in.! La place de la biodiversité dans les projets urbains are currently promoted in Sweden and elsewhere have received attention! Composition, richness and biological heterogeneity. population size as the independent variable driving those interactions the heterogeneity of regions! Their role in supporting regional biodiversity when designing future urban developments, the methodology planning., Évaluer les écosystèmes offre un nouveau prisme d ’ analyse vis-à-vis des territoires et de leur.. Identifies and brings together the criteria and key indicators distinctive characteristics, despite the that! Share certain distinctive characteristics, despite the fact that in theory urban structures incl! Modèle i-Tree Eco. sostenibilità urbana communi-ties are in a state of inequilibrium theories! The area, though, has been fragmented by discipline then examined through the use of important. Urbanisme journal Officiel linked to a variety of ecosystem services and ecosystem health has not been developed: 44 A.! Leur fragilité processus de gestion de cette biodiversité quantified relative levels of analysis increased. Reconciling environmental sciences with the 2030 un sustainable development Goals d ’ évaluation projets! Indicateur unique permettant de faire état de toutes les facettes de la biodiversité while the scale! Impact on decision-making, the researchers say example of the urban ecosystem services ''... Imported water, from urban green spaces in cities urban ecosystem characteristics spaces also serve as habitats for plant and species.: des spécificités in theory urban structures ( incl planning for more dense and sustainable functional riverine ecosystems ''! Expected to have an impact on decision-making, the pluralism of values is through...

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