1991. There is little doubt that domestic animals change the ecological character of the relatively small proportion of rangelands in which they are highly concentrated, but the reaction of rangeland vegetation to the abiotic environment is not well understood. the Tibetans in Gansu and Qinghai. Social studies have been even further removed from the grassland agenda. The temperate grassland biome faces various environmental threats, namely drought, fire, and conversion to farmlands by humans. Inappropriate practices and destructive strategies are often found in both traditional and modern grazing. However, the record also shows that traditional pastoral people may be no more likely to cause these problems than are scientists and development personnel who make easy but incorrect assumptions about unfamiliar ecosystems or modern ranchers who find themselves in an economic squeeze. Members of this panel look forward to joining our Chinese colleagues in this adventure. Conservation biology: Overgrazing overstated. Nature 349:280–281. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The near extinction of the buffalo (bison) from the prairies of North America has greatly altered the life on that grassland area. Lusigi, W.J. Our technicians are trained to spot early warning signs that you would probably not notice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Estimate the amount of BNF that is contributed by various crops. Wade, N. 1974. Define forage quality and management decisions that increase forage quality. Desertification of the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones of West Africa. Geography 75:106–13. The book gives its view on the Chinese approach to the study of grasslands and the relevance of this activity in China to global scientific concerns. The saiga antelope and Przewalski's horse are extinct in China, while the wild Bactrian camel has been reduced to perhaps 500 individuals, all in the most remote desert tracts. 3(2):93–100. Pp. Forage selection requires an understanding of species and cultivars. The reforms of the 1980s, which dissolved the collectives and turned livestock and in many cases land over to individual households, have given renewed importance to indigenous systems of production. The main disturbances that shaped native grasslands prior to European settlement were fire and bison grazing. Long-term research on extensively used rangelands is required to explain the interactive effects of grazing, weather, fire, and fire suppression. Introduction. 1987. Recent theory on common pool resources (National Research Council, 1986; Ostrom, 1990) has caught up with these findings, by examining the conditions under which user groups, whether organized in a traditional (e.g., kinship) or modern (e.g., cooperative) unit, can be assured that individual owners will respect collective rules about resource use. Describe several ways in which weeds cause forage crop and animal production losses. This frontier has been one of the most persistent and important zones of contact between com-. A wide array of maps and accompany-. Discuss the methods and timing of seeding. As a result, manage- ... management problems for tallgrass and eastern grasslands, It has been reinforced by man, for it marks the divide, economically, between intensive agriculture and extensive animal husbandry; politically, between large centrally controlled states and dispersed tribal units; militarily, between the mounted horsemen and the wall builders; and culturally, between different ethnic and linguistic groups. Binns (1990) associates desertification with irreversible changes but says that degradation is reversible given favorable weather and adequate time. Determine the characteristics of good silage and the steps in producing it. The Grassland Review Panel appointed by the National Academy of Sciences to review this study concluded that the best way to understand the current state of grassland science in China is to let Chinese scientists speak for themselves—through their published research, their work in situ, and their descriptions of both. Snook, T.J. Lee, and T.G.F. Beall, and R.P. The grasslands that survive in China today are steppe and semidesert areas that have not been colonized by crop agriculturalists. The cattle complex in East Africa. Grassland biomes are large, rolling terrains of grasses, flowers and herbs. Pielke, R.A., G. Dalu, J.S. Whole ecosystems are too complex to describe and analyze with ordinary language or simple mathematical formulas. Serious cases of desertification appear on sandy soils where cultivation and large concentrations of people or livestock in agricultural villages have resulted in soil denudation and. Grasslands and rangelands occupy approximately 70% of the world’s agricultural area (FAOSTAT 2013) with 68% of them are located in developing countries (Boval and Dixon, 2012). Some grasslands were too overwhelming for man for a long time. The panel's comments on these issues make up this concluding chapter. Grasses are very common but very important. The supremacy of the nomads was based on the mounted archer, who combined rapid mobility with formidable firepower. More than 200,000 Mongolian gazelles migrate between the eastern steppes of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. Describe the benefits of BNF in economic and environmental terms. Fourth Conference on Mesoscale Processes, Boulder, Colo., June 25–29, 1990. Science 253:299–301. The study of grasslands in China as elsewhere must take account of wild as well as domesticated animals and of the importance of preserving the grasslands not only as an economic resource, but also as a natural reserve. Such imagery demonstrates, first, that there is a large seasonal response of the grasslands to the changing weather; and second, that there is considerable spatial structure in this landscape. For more than two millennia, Chinese have been building fortifications (often misleadingly referred to as "The Great Wall") along a line that runs across Asia, marking the frontier between pastoral societies and practices in the north and settled agriculture in the south. Since summers can often reach high temperatures in temperate grasslands and the rate of precipitation can be mild, drought is often likely. The scientific literature contains many cases around the world (including Tibet) where pastoral practices are not irrational and are not degrading the environment. The one area of research on wild mammals covered in this study is on grassland rodents. Europeans have expressed similar concerns about droughts in Africa in the 1930s and during the past quarter century. Happily, there are signs that things are changing. Forage Information System Desertification Control Bulletin 16:16–19. Other large minorities, such as the Hui in Gansu, Qinghai, and Ningxia, and the Uighurs in Xinjiang, are farmers or traders who practice animal husbandry as an adjunct to village-based agriculture. Generally speaking, grasslands, or rangelands, as they’re sometimes called, are open areas without trees. Distinguish between selective and non-selective herbicides and give an example of each. Similarly, 21.2% of all grasslands in northern China are judged unusable (see Table 1-1). Describe potential problems that may arise from the use of irrigation in forages. Grassland ecology and management is for students excited about the study and management of private and public grasslands. But a more serious problem is access to training. Discuss how livestock interaction impacts grass growth. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Today more issues loom over the grasslands. Barfield, Thomas. Beall. The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China. Conversely, where these conditions do not apply, it is unlikely that common resources such as pasture can be sustained. Describe basic principles of scheduling irrigation for efficient use of water resources. Explain how forages have been and are essential to civilization. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Most grassland weeds such as docks and thistles are suppressed by the annual hay cut in July and will gradually decline with good management. Yet analysis of these practices usually reveals that they are quite rational. Sixty years later, the range of this gazelle has decreased by more than two-thirds. Discuss the considerations of seed quality. 1989. Swift. These views have been presented in Chapters 2 through 13. When material- or man-caused global climate changes occur, what is the expected influence on the seasonal and spatial landscape of the northern China grasslands? At the same time, the members of the panel would like to advance the dialogue with their Chinese colleagues by commenting on some of the key issues raised in the preceding chapters, including how these issues have been treated in China and abroad, and what this means for the challenge that grassland science and scientists inside and outside China face in the years ahead. Hellden, U. Social, economic and environmental factors Often the problems of grasslands and their users are more socio-economic than technical. Andre, J.-C., P. Bougeault, and J.-P. Goutorbe. Hardin's (1968) notion, the tragedy of the commons, has also been invoked to illustrate the irrational and destructive nature of pastoral management. ‹ Locate and describe the temperate grasslands and their forages. Such an evaluation is critical not only to understanding local and regional climate and weather, but also as input into global circulation models. 1989. The migrations were limited to a defined territory, and the use of pastures was controlled by extended kinship groups. To protect the diversity and richness of China's rangelands and to guarantee that future generations of Chinese enjoy the benefits of this great resource are important tasks that deserve the attention of scholars in China and abroad. Yet the greatest environmental damage is generally found around wells or agricultural villages where pastoralists have been settled (Lusigi, 1981; Sinclair and Fryxell, 1985). Discuss fertilizer management for mixed stands. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Because pastoralism is a risky business in which animals quickly gained can be just as quickly lost to bad weather, disease, or theft, large numbers of animals act as insurance against disaster. Describe the five general categories of weed control methods. Define the utilization of legumes in forage-livestock systems. That Africa's rangelands are being reduced to desert through overgrazing by domestic livestock is received wisdom. Forse, B. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. London: George Allen & Unwin. The selection of a forage plant is crucial. National Research Council. As this study points out, vast areas of China's grasslands are unusable, because they are too dry, too remote, too degraded, or suffer from some other limitation. Hellden conceded that crop yields and probably rangeland productivity were severely reduced during a 10-year drought, but maintained that the end of the drought was followed by rapid recovery of both rangeland and cropland productivity. This theory holds that under such circumstances, the benefit of each animal accrues to the owner, whereas external costs (essentially a reduction in the amount of grazing available by one animal ration) must be shared by all. Lattimore, Owen. The debate over changes in arid and semiarid lands revolves around questions of the causes of these changes, particularly the relative importance of natural versus human factors; their duration; whether they are temporary or irreversible; and what, if anything, can or should be done about the problem. The goitered gazelle, wild ass, wild yak, and Tibetan antelope have declined to a fraction of their former numbers. In the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region there is extreme pressure on such extensive grazing lands as remain. Although true open-access commons, such as the atmosphere or ocean floors, exist, they are the exception. The line has been drawn by nature, for it distinguishes the lands that have sufficient moisture to support cultivation from those that do not. Goldstein, M.C., C.M. ing texts, scheduled for publication in the next two to three years, should make an enormous contribution to knowledge of the state of China's grasslands and other natural resources. land species to specific grassland management practices can be variable and often are regionally dependent. Dregne, and W.W. Newcombe. Grassland biodiversity in Japan: Threats, Management and Conservation. Geographical Journal 85:506–524. These Best Management Practices (BMPs) should be used to guide habitat management on grassland habitat or habitat to be converted into grassland. Kittel. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Grassland Management Practices in Melghat Tiger Reserve: A Case Study G.D. Muratkar, Dinesh Tyagi, ... Park: Problems and Approaches for Management Niranjan K. Vasu and G. Singh 114 In the literature, nomads were presented as survivors of mankind's primitive past, following a way of life that offered nothing to and demanded nothing from outsiders. During winter, of course, this area would be dormant. While it is impossible to cover all possible scenarios related to tree management in grasslands in a single article, the primary message for grassland owners and managers is that early control of volunteer woody species is the simplest and most cost-effective option for maintaining open grassland habitats. The preservation of these wild ungulates, which is essential for conserving biodiversity, may also make better economic sense than the recent practice of displacing wildlife with domestic livestock. The arrival of railroads in the 1800's also greatly changed the massive grasslands in Eurasia and North America. Describe conditions that tend to favor weed problems in pastures and describe how to alleviate these conditions. The plant, soil, animal balance is natural but easily upset. Landscape Ecology 4:133–155. Rangelands/Grasslands of India: Current Status and Future Prospects In North America, attention has focused on the Great Plains, particularly during the droughts of the 1930s. For these and other reasons, the elimination of small mammals could have a long-term negative impact on rangelands. World Bank, Washington, D.C. Hardin, G. 1968. This debate has both theoretical and practical implications. For example, official figures for Inner Mongolia suggest that more than half of the grassland area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) is degraded and that almost one-fourth of this degraded land is "unusable." Perhaps the greatest impact on China's grasslands, both ecological and social, during the past century has been the massive influx of Han settlers. Although it is difficult to increase livestock numbers by deliberate planning, the herder may obtain more animals because of good weather, good pasture, or just plain luck. Expansion and contraction of the Sahara desert from 1980 to 1990. A Cooperative Development Experiment Among Nomadic Herders in Niger. The Sahel of Africa: Ecology of a disaster. Their vast acreage, the grasses that grow to be over 10 feet tall, their climate characteristics, and the animals that forage on them have all been natural protectors of the grasslands. 1988. National Grasslands Management 13 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About National Grasslands Management 25 Summaiy 48 Appendices Report of the National Grasslands Management Review Team (Dec. 1995). 28:230–272. Nonlinear influence of mesoscale landuse on weather and climate. Differentiate warm-season from cool-season legumes. Panel members were impressed by the commitment to such changes expressed by scholars in other Chinese universities and research institutes as well. Describe important factors that determine hay and silage quality. Influence of vegetation on the water and heat distribution over mesoscale sized areas. de Haan, C. 1990. Swift, J., and A. Maliki. Grasslands are an important ecosystem that people use (and sometimes abuse) for the resources they provide. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. The problems of handling large bodies of data and integrating information from various disciplines to create new forms of knowledge is the central challenge of ecosystem science at the end of the twentieth century. Occasional Paper No. In part, the problem is inadequate hardware and software. In the northern grasslands, only three major groups traditionally engaged in pastoral nomadism: the Mongols in the east, the Kazakhs in northern Xinjiang, and. Hellden (1988) cites several definitions of "desertification" and finds that all include the notion of decreasing productivity leading to long-lasting, possibly irreversible desertlike conditions. In 1991 the focus of attention along this frontier returned to its source, the environment. Brown (1971) argued that pastoralists were irrational because they conducted dairy operations in environmental settings suited for beef production. However, analyzing the same area by using remotely sensed data for the period 1962–1979, Hellden (1988) concluded that the desert boundary had not moved at all. In either case, researchers must analyze the organization and dynamics of animal husbandry before drawing conclusions about their impact on the grasslands ecosystem. Five Essays on the Study of Pastoralists and Development of Pastoralism. Describe the current role of forages in US agriculture. Explain why producers and the public should be concerned about weeds. The balance of power and influence along the frontier has shifted with changes in technology. (1991) reported that analysis of satellite imagery suggests that the Sahara experiences massive between-year changes and may actually have shrunk since 1984. The most striking example of how the natural cycle of grasslands can be upset occurred in the early 1900's on the prairies of North America. 1971. Diversity is a keyword for grasslands and grassland-based systems in Europe. Water management. Such marginal rangelands could be devoted to protecting and in some instances managing wild ungulates on a sustained-yield basis. The Chinese are more advanced in the use of remote sensing, a technique that has helped to develop regional and global approaches to ecosystem science. Wade (1974), Sinclair and Fryxell (1985) and other writers during the past 20 years attribute desertification in Africa to human activities. This is a challenge that unites scientists inside and outside China in a common quest to understand nature and man's relationship to it. Rodd (1938) disputed both claims, insisting that Stebbing did not understand variable weather conditions and ecosystem response in the Sahara region. Khazanov, Anatoly M. 1984. Simulation modeling is still poorly developed in China. This phenomenon has been attributed to various factors: an organizational structure that places resources in the hands of research institutes concerned only with their distinct, separate missions; a personnel system that allows for little mobility of students and scholars from one institution or part of the country to another; a centrally planned economy that offers few incentives for communication between researchers and producers; or cultural traits that mitigate against the free and open sharing of information. The grasslands have been allocated to families in relatively small units and it remains to be seen how effective management will be of small areas of semi-arid risk -prone grassland. Ready to take your reading offline? Define biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and explain its importance. List local, regional, and national sources of weed control information. The history of studies of desertification in Africa demonstrates how difficult it has been to reach agreement on whether, how much, and for what reasons desert areas have expanded. Desertification Control Bulletin 17:8–12. However, Chinese efforts to process and use digital data, to coordinate this date with ground-based measurements, and to construct and manage complex geographical information systems (GIS) are just beginning and are subject to some of the same human and material limitations that have slowed the development of simulation modeling. List the characteristics of good hay and the steps needed to make it. By the end of the nineteenth century, however, these restrictions had lapsed, and Han farmers began to move into Manchuria and southern Mongolia, putting grasslands under cultivation and pressing indigenous pastoralists and their livestock into smaller, less-productive areas. There has been in recent years a considerable reduction in the number, variety, and range of wild animals, especially large ungulates, in the area covered by this study. In China, as elsewhere, the assumptions that herbivorous rodents and pikas (Ochotonidae) damage the grasslands and should be eradicated or at least controlled are apparently shared by scholars and policymakers alike. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. They have considerable experience with satellite technology, maintain a Landsat receiving station that supplies Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data, and have been successful in using remote images for mapping grasslands and other biomes. The grasses that seem native to an area today are not necessarily what grew there 100 years ago. Provide the basic vocabulary for identifying legumes. Oregon State University Jagchid, Sechin, and Van Jay Symons. Locate and describe the temperate grasslands and their forages. Important issues affecting grasslands and their forages. In terms of water, the most important aspect for the successful sustainable management of grasslands is the management of water resources. Discuss the possible future role of forages in the US. This is a politically sensitive topic in China, and Chinese reports sometimes allude to problems that they fail to describe in detail. The reduction in the number of ungulates in China, as well as such predators as wolf and snow leopard, has been the result of several factors. History and Management of the Grasslands Today, visitors to serpentine areas will find a sparsely vegetated mosaic of stunted oak and pine forests surrounding small grassy openings. Range Science Department, Utah State University, Logan. Instead, these studies demonstrate that ill-founded assumptions, including herder irrationality, have contributed to the adoption of poor livestock development strategies (de Haan, 1990) and in some instances have actually caused environmental damage and reduction in the economic welfare of the very people the strategies were designed to help. Ideally, such research should be carried out through collaboration between natural and social scientists, using methods that give a prominent place to the perceptions and capabilities of pastureland users themselves. Fire alone is ineffective against smooth sumac because, while the aerial stems may be top-killed, the plant will resprout from root buds. Despite widespread awareness of and acute concern for the human impact on grasslands, research in China on grassland ecosystems has made little use of economics and none whatsoever of political science, sociology, anthropology, demography, history, or other disciplines that might help explain the relationship between man and nature. Ellis, J.E., and D.M. Such rules specify who has access to the resources and under what conditions, regulate access and levels of use, and provide for the resolution of conflicts and enforcement of sanctions. Mace, R. 1991. This is the case, for example, where members of the group do not follow similar production strategies, where there are large wealth or status differentials, where group membership has few benefits, and especially where rules about resource use and management are unenforced or unenforceable. The "Dust Bowl" was a rude wake-up call that mismanagement can quickly bring destruction to the grassland continuum. Observations made by the two CSCPRC delegations confirm that degradation does occur at specific sites throughout northern China. Explain the reasons why forage plant identification is important. Both sound devastating but they actually provide positive effects to the development of grasslands. This program is reminiscent of the mass poisoning of prairie dogs in the United States and may be similarly unwarranted. People rely heavily upon Although extensive pastoralism is associated with the minority peoples of China, not all minorities in the grassland areas are pastoralists. agriculture is limited only by nature or, where nature is momentarily bowed, by sporadic natural disaster; and the pastoralists have been reduced to areas where nothing else works. List and discuss factors that affect the quantity of nitrogen fixed. Relocation of people and livestock may not be a viable solution for cultural reasons, … New York: American Geographic Society. Future grassland studies must take greater account of social and economic structures and their effects on the exploitation of natural resources. The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth . Describe the major differences between the plant families used as forages. Rodd, F. 1938. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Biol. Culture, environment, forage, grassland management, grassland policies, producers, rangeland management, society. Gorse and Steeds (1987) present the commonly held view that desertification is the sustained, irreversible decline in biological productivity of arid and semiarid land, resulting from both human and abiotic pressures. peting forms of human adaptation, and nowhere has the contrast been sharper or its significance greater than in China. ion as a process of change in ecosystems toward more arid states. Whatever the reasons, fragmentation of scholarship along disciplinary and institutional lines remains a feature of grassland science in China and is evident in the findings of this study. Corallis, OR 97331-3002Contact Us, Instructor Materials: Assessments: Prerequisite Test. Because under these circumstances private benefit exceeds private cost, each owner is encouraged to continue adding animals to his herd, leading inevitably to overuse and degradation. However, the issue is so important for grassland ecology and other fields of interest, that it merits more direct and frank discussion. Farmers and ranchers use grasslands to graze animals such as cattle and sheep. As recent research in western Tibet has shown, the assertion that pastures are overstocked may be due to new accounting procedures rather than actual increases in herd size (Goldstein and Beall, 1989). 1990. Cincotta. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pasture renovation. 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